Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans-formers, busbars, and electric lines. Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing. The emphasis is then placed on the different variants of differential protection and their practical application illustrated by concrete examples. This is completed by recommendations for commissioning, testing and maintenance. Finally the design and management of modern differential protection is explained by means of the latest Siemens SIPROTEC relay series. As a textbook and standard work in one, this book covers all topics, which have to be paid attention to for planning, designing, configuring and applying differential protection systems. The book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of differential protection, as well as the experienced user entering the area of numerical differential protection. Furthermore, it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems. For the new edition all contents have been revised, extended and updated to the latest state-of-the-art of protective relaying.